Módulo:WikidataIB

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This module is designed specifically to implement a mechanism which moves control of whether Wikidata values are used in an infobox from the template coder at the infobox design level to the editor at the article level. It should only be used inside an infobox.

Usage[trocar el manadero]

The module provides these calls specifically for use in infoboxes at present:

  1. getValue
  2. getPreferredValue
  3. getSourcedValue
  4. getCoords
  5. getQualifierValue

The call getSourcedValue is kept for backwards compatibility as it is now redundant to getValue which can do the same job using the |onlysourced=true parameter.

There are also these utility calls:

  1. getLink
  2. getLabel
  3. getAT
  4. formatDate
  5. checkBlacklist

Generalised calls:

{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |<PropertyID> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no> |noicon=<yes/no> |df=<dmy/mdy/y> |bc=<BC/BCE> |<local parameter>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getPreferredValue |<PropertyID> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no> |noicon=<yes/no> |df=<dmy/mdy/y> |bc=<BC/BCE> |<local parameter>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getSourcedValue |<PropertyID> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |<local parameter>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getCoords |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |<local parameter>}}
{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getQualifierValue |<PropertyID> |pval=<ID of target value for the property> |qual=<qualifier ID for that target value> |name=<fieldname> |suppressfields=<list of fields which will never display> |fetchwikidata=<list of fields to fetch values from Wikidata> |onlysourced=<yes/no>}}

Function getValue[trocar el manadero]

  • getValue can also take a named parameter |qid= which is the Wikidata ID for the article. This will not normally be used but is available for testing, although it makes the call expensive.
  • The property to be returned is passed in the first unnamed property.
  • The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in the named parameter |name=, which is first checked against a blacklist of fields that are never to be displayed, (i.e. the call must return nil in all circumstances). If the field is not on the blacklist, it is then checked against a whitelist. If the name of the field matches, the call will return any locally supplied value if it is supplied as the second unnamed parameter, or the Wikidata value otherwise.
  • The name is compulsory when the blacklist or whitelist is used, so the module returns nil if it is not supplied.
  • The blacklist is passed in the named parameter |suppressfields=
  • The whitelist is passed in the named parameter |fetchwikidata=

The getValue function will accept a boolean parameter onlysourced which will suppress return of Wikidata values that are unsourced or only sourced to Wikipedia. The absence of the parameter, an empty parameter (|onlysourced=) and the empty string ("") all default to true (i.e. only referenced values are returned). The values no, false and 0 are treated as false (i.e. all values are returned); any other value is true (although |onlysourced=yes is recommended for readability).

The getValue function will accept a boolean parameter noicon which will suppress the trailing "edit at Wikidata" icon for when the returned value is to be further processed by the infobox (e.g. a url). The absence of the parameter or an empty parameter (|noicon=) default to false (i.e. the icon is added). The empty string ("") and the values no, false and 0 are treated as false; any other value is true (although |noicon=true is recommended for readability).

In order to handle the requirement for dates in mdy, dmy or just year formats, getValue accepts a named parameter |df= that may take the values "dmy", "mdy", or "y" - default is "dmy".

As an article may require either of suffixes BC and BCE, getValue accepts a named parameter |bc= that may take the values "BC", or "BCE" - default is "BCE". Some test cases are shown at Module talk:WikidataIB #Calls to getValue for dates.

Formatting multiple returned values[trocar el manadero]

  • |sorted=<yes|no> is a boolean passed to enable sorting of the values returned. No parameter, or an empty string, or "false", or "no", or "0" disables sorting. It's only a very dumb alphabetical sort and sorts linked values as "[[ ..."
  • |sep=<separator characters> allows the separator between multiple returned values to be defined. The default is ", " (comma plus normal space). If the separator has leading or trailing spaces, enclose it in double quotes (e.g. |sep=" - "). Any double quotes are stripped from the separator. The pipe character (|) must be escaped as {{!}}.
  • |list=<hlist|ubl> allows multiple returned values to be displayed as a horizontal list (|list=hlist), or a vertical unbulleted list (|list=ubl). These override the separator and do not display the 'pen icon' linked to "Edit at Wikidata"

Function getPreferredValue[trocar el manadero]

The getPreferredValue function works exactly like getValue, taking the same parameters, but if any values for a property have the preferred rank set, it will only return those values.

Comparison example[trocar el manadero]

Fetching the name(s) of the Xablón:Q from Xablón:Q:

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P170 |fetchwikidata=ALL |qid=Q29016906 |onlysourced=no}} → Artemisia Gentileschi, Annella de Rosa, Massimo Stanzione Edit this on Wikidata
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getPreferredValue |P170 |fetchwikidata=ALL |qid=Q29016906 |onlysourced=no}} → Artemisia Gentileschi Edit this on Wikidata

Function getSourcedValue[trocar el manadero]

  • getSourcedValue works exactly as getValue does, but only returns values that have a reference to something other than a Wikipedia. That's not a guarantee of a reliable source, but it helps separate the wheat from the chaff.

Example of getSourcedValue[trocar el manadero]

From Xablón:Q:

Burton currently has four values for Xablón:Q on Wikidata:

Using getValue in Richard Burton:

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P106 |name=occupation |fetchwikidata=ALL}} -> actor de cine, diarista, actor de teatro, actor Edit this on Wikidata

Using getSourcedValue in Richard Burton:

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getSourcedValue |P106 |name=occupation |fetchwikidata=ALL}} -> Error en la secuencia de órdenes: la función «getSourcedValue» no existe.

Function getCoords[trocar el manadero]

  • getCoords can also take a named parameter |qid= which is the Wikidata ID for the article. This will not normally be used but is available for testing, although it makes the call expensive.
  • The coordinates from Wikidata are parsed and passed to Template:Coord which returns the display as if it were called manually.
  • The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in the named parameter |name=, which is first checked against a blacklist of fields that are never to be displayed, (i.e. the call must return nil in all circumstances). If the field is not on the blacklist, it is then checked against a whitelist. If the name of the field matches, the call will return any locally supplied value if it is supplied as the unnamed parameter, or the Wikidata value otherwise.
  • The name is compulsory when the blacklist or whitelist is used, so the module returns nil if it is not supplied.
  • The blacklist is passed in the named parameter |suppressfields=
  • The whitelist is passed in the named parameter |fetchwikidata=

Function getQualifierValue[trocar el manadero]

The getQualifierValue is for use when we want to fetch the value of a qualifier. We need to know the property and the value of the property that it qualifies. The parameters are:

  • The property ID passed in the unnamed parameter (or |1=)
  • The target value for that property in |pval=
  • The qualifier ID for that target value in |qual=
  • The name of the field where its called from to implement whitelisting and blacklisting of the property in
  • The list of fields to be fetched ("whitelist") in |fetchwikidata= - accepts |fetchwikidata=ALL to fetch all fields
  • Optional list of fields not to be displayed ("blacklist") in |suppressfields=
  • Optional boolean to specify whether only sourced values of the property are returned (defaults to "no") in |onlysourced=
  • Optional item ID for arbitrary access (expensive call!) in |qid=

Example of getQualifierValue[trocar el manadero]

In Xablón:Q there is a property Xablón:Q, which has a value Xablón:Q. That has two qualifiers, Xablón:Q and Xablón:Q. To get the start date:

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getQualifierValue |P793 |pval=Q385378 |qual=P580 |name=xyz |fetchwikidata=ALL }}

In South Pole Telescope it returns:

  • novembre de 2006 Edit this on Wikidata

Function getLink[trocar el manadero]

getLink returns the label for a Qid wiki-linked to the local article (if the article exists). If label doesn't exist, it returns the Qid wiki-linked to the local article (if the article exists).

Function getLabel[trocar el manadero]

getLabel returns the label for a Qid. If label doesn't exist, it returns the Qid. Note that this is the label given to the Wikidata entry in the same language as the current Wikipedia, if the label exists.

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLabel |Q29016906}} → Corisca e il sátiro
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getLabel |Q3621491}} → arqueólogo

Function getAT[trocar el manadero]

getAT returns the article title for a Qid. If the article title doesn't exist, it returns nothing. Note that this is the title of the article in the current Wikipedia, if the interlanguage link exists in the Wikidata entry.

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getAT |Q29016906}}
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getAT |Q3621491}}

Function formatDate[trocar el manadero]

formatDate accepts a datetime of the usual format from mw.wikibase.entity:formatPropertyValues, like "1 August 30 BCE" as parameter 1 and formats it according to the df (date format) and bc parameters.

  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |formatDate | 1 August 30 BCE |bc=BCE |df=dmy}} → 1 August 30 BCE
  • {{#invoke:WikidataIB |formatDate | 1 August 30 BCE |bc=BC |df=mdy}} → August 1, 30 BC
  • df = "dmy" / "mdy" / "y" - default is "dmy"
  • bc = "BC" / "BCE" - default is "BCE"

Coding into an infobox[trocar el manadero]

Typically, the getValue call will be invoked in an infobox definition, using appropriate template parameters. One simple implementation is given as an example in Template:Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox. As an illustration, the 'author' field in the infobox is coded like this:

| label2  = Author{{#if:{{{authors|}}}|s}}
|  data2  = {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P50 |name=author |fetchwikidata={{{fetchwikidata|}}} |suppressfields={{{suppressfields|}}} |{{{authors|{{{author|}}}}}} }}

The property to be fetched is the first unnamed parameter. In this case it is Xablón:Q.

The name of the field is passed in |name= and that name is checked against the blacklist and the whitelist. To always suppress the author field in a particular article, an editor will set |suppressfields=author in the infobox. The author field will then never be displayed.

If the field is not blacklisted, then the infobox can be set to display a locally supplied value for author simply by setting |author=George Orwell, for example, in the infobox. It also accepts |authors=. If the name of the field is on the whitelist, e.g. |fetchwikidata=author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress, and the local value is not supplied, then the infobox will display the value retrieved from Wikidata. Any separators can be used, except | and {}.

As a shorthand, |fetchwikidata=ALL will fetch all of the fields that are not blacklisted, as long as no local value is already provided in the article for a given field.

Since Wikidata labels are normally lower case, the sentence case function from Module:String2 can be used to capitalise the first letter of the returned text, e.g.

  • {{#invoke:String2 | sentence | {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getValue |P136 |name=genre |fetchwikidata=ALL |onlysourced=false}} }} in Xablón:Q produces:
  • Error en la secuencia de órdenes: no existe el módulo «String2».

Coodinates[trocar el manadero]

The getCoords call will display the output of Template:Coord when supplied with the coordinates returned from Wikidata.There's an example in Template:Sandbox/Infobox biosphere reserve where it's coded like this:

|label20 = Coordinates
| data20 = {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getCoords |name=coordinates |suppressfields={{{suppressfields|}}} |fetchwikidata={{{fetchwikidata|}}} |{{{coordinates|}}} }}

Upgrading existing infoboxes[trocar el manadero]

Since the parameter |fetchwikidata= is needed for any Wikidata functionality, an existing infobox may be replaced by an infobox incorporating these calls without any change whatsoever to any article. Each article using the new infobox can later be enabled by supplying |fetchwikidata=ALL, or a list of required fields for that article. At that point, the onus is on the editor enabling the functionality to check that no unwanted fields are now being displayed. If so, they can be added to a blacklist for the article by setting |suppressfields= to the list of unwanted fields.

Verifiability[trocar el manadero]

Where it will always be essential for a particular field to only contain values that are referenced, use getValue, making sure that |onlysourced= is not set to 'false', '0' or 'no'. By default it will exclude values that are unsourced or only sourced to a Wikipedia, thus making the job of checking easier at the article level. If unsourced data is acceptable (!), set |onlysourced=true. As it is beyond my wit to produce an automated mechanism that knows whether an existing source is reliable or not in a given context, that job must still be performed at the article level by an editor familiar with the subject. It should always be done when first enabling Wikidata for that article.

Examples[trocar el manadero]

This section is taken from Template:Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox/doc.

No Wikidata[trocar el manadero]

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| suppressfields =
| fetchwikidata  =
| name           = Animal Farm
| title_orig     = Animal Farm: A Fairy Story
| image          = Animal Farm - 1st edition.jpg
| image_size     = 200px
| caption        = First edition cover
| author         = [[George Orwell]]
| country        = United Kingdom
| language       = English
| genre          = Political satire
}}

Works as a non-aware infobox: only locally supplied parameters are displayed.

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| name           = Animal Farm
| title_orig     = Animal Farm: A Fairy Story
| image          = Animal Farm - 1st edition.jpg
| image_size     = 200px
| caption        = First edition cover
| author         = [[George Orwell]]
| country        = United Kingdom
| language       = English
| genre          = Political satire
}}

The blacklist and whitelist can be omitted if unused

All Wikidata[trocar el manadero]

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| suppressfields = 
| fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
}}

Fetches all of its values from Wikidata.

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| fetchwikidata  = ALL
}}

As shorthand, the |fetchwikidata= can be set to ALL to fetch all available fields. Any of them can be suppressed by |suppressfields=, or overridden by supplying a local value.

Never display genre[trocar el manadero]

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| suppressfields = genre
| fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
}}

The genre field will always be suppressed, even if a local value is supplied.

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| suppressfields = genre
| fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
| genre          = Political satire
}}

Local override[trocar el manadero]

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| fetchwikidata  = author; genre; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
| genre          = Political satire
}}

The genre field is set to display "Political satire", no matter what is stored in Wikidata.

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| fetchwikidata  = ALL
| genre          = Novel
}}

The genre field is set to display "Novel", no matter what is stored in Wikidata.

Don't fetch genre[trocar el manadero]

{{Infobox book/Wikidata/Sandbox
| suppressfields = 
| fetchwikidata  = author; pub_date; pages; dewey; congress
}}

The genre field will not be fetched from Wikidata.

Coordinates[trocar el manadero]

{{Sandbox/Infobox biosphere reserve
| fetchwikidata = ALL
}}

Displays coordinates when used in an article where Wikidata has coordinates.

See also[trocar el manadero]


-- Module to implement use of a blacklist and whitelist for infobox fields
-- Can take a named parameter |qid which is the Wikidata ID for the article
-- if not supplied, it will use the Wikidata ID associated with the current page.
-- Fields in blacklist are never to be displayed, i.e. module must return nil in all circumstances
-- Fields in whitelist return local value if it exists or the Wikidata value otherwise
-- The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in named parameter |name
-- The name is compulsory when blacklist or whitelist is used,
-- so the module returns nil if it is not supplied.
-- blacklist is passed in named parameter |suppressfields (or |spf)
-- whitelist is passed in named parameter |fetchwikidata (or |fwd)

local p = {}

local cdate = require("Module:Complex date")._complex_date
-- [[Module:Complex date]] has the following dependencies:
-- Module:i18n/complex date, Module:ISOdate, Module:DateI18n (Module:Date), Module:Formatnum,
-- Module:I18n/date, Module:Yesno, Module:Linguistic, Module:Calendar
-- The following, taken from https://www.mediawiki.org/wiki/Wikibase/DataModel#Dates_and_times,
-- is needed to use Module:Complex date which seemingly requires date precision as a string.
-- It would work better if only the authors of the mediawiki page could spell 'millennium'.
local dp = {
	[6] = "millennium",
	[7] = "century",
	[8] = "decade",
	[9] = "year",
	[10] = "month",
	[11] = "day",
}

local i18n =
{
	["errors"] =
	{
		["property-not-found"] = "Property not found.",
		["No property supplied"] = "No property supplied",
		["entity-not-found"] = "Wikidata entity not found.",
		["unknown-claim-type"] = "Unknown claim type.",
		["unknown-entity-type"] = "Unknown entity type.",
		["qualifier-not-found"] = "Qualifier not found.",
		["site-not-found"] = "Wikimedia project not found.",
		["labels-not-found"] = "No labels found.",
		["descriptions-not-found"] = "No descriptions found.",
		["aliases-not-found"] = "No aliases found.",
		["unknown-datetime-format"] = "Unknown datetime format.",
		["local-article-not-found"] = "Article is available on Wikidata, but not on Wikipedia",
		["dab-page"] = " (dab)",
	},
	["months"] =
	{
		"January", "February", "March", "April", "May", "June",
		"July", "August", "September", "October", "November", "December"
	},
	["century"] = "century",
	["BC"] = "BC",
	["BCE"] = "BCE",
	["ordinal"] =
	{
		[1] = "st",
		[2] = "nd",
		[3] = "rd",
		["default"] = "th"
	},
	["filespace"] = "File",
	["Unknown"] = "Unknown",
	["NaN"] = "Not a number",
	-- set the following to the name of a tracking category,
	-- e.g. "[[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]", or "" to disable:
	["missinginfocat"] = "[[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]",
	["editonwikidata"] = "Edit this on Wikidata",
	["latestdatequalifier"] = function (date) return "before " .. date end,
	-- some languages, e.g. Bosnian use a period as a suffix after each number in a date
	["datenumbersuffix"] = "",
	["list separator"] = ", ",
	["multipliers"] = {
		[0]  = "",
		[3]  = " thousand",
		[6]  = " million",
		[9]  = " billion",
		[12] = " trillion",
	}
}
-- This allows a internationisation module to override the above table
require("Module:i18n").loadI18n("Module:WikidataIB/i18n", i18n)

-- This piece of html implements a collapsible container. Check the classes exist on your wiki.
local collapsediv = '<div class="mw-collapsible mw-collapsed" style="width:100%; overflow:auto;" data-expandtext="{{int:show}}" data-collapsetext="{{int:hide}}">'

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Private functions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
--
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- makeOrdinal needs to be internationalised along with the above:
-- takes cardinal numer as a numeric and returns the ordinal as a string
-- we need three exceptions in English for 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 21st, .. 31st, etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local makeOrdinal = function(cardinal)
	local ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal.default
	if cardinal % 10 == 1 then
		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[1]
	elseif cardinal % 10 == 2 then
		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[2]
	elseif cardinal % 10 == 3 then
		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal[3]
	end
	-- In English, 1, 21, 31, etc. use 'st', but 11, 111, etc. use 'th'
	-- similarly for 12 and 13, etc.
	if (cardinal % 100 == 11) or (cardinal % 100 == 12) or (cardinal % 100 == 13) then
		ordsuffix = i18n.ordinal.default
	end
	return tostring(cardinal) .. ordsuffix
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- findLang takes a "langcode" parameter if if supplied and valid
-- otherwise it tries to create it from the user's set language ({{int:lang}})
-- failing that it uses the wiki's content language.
-- It returns a language object
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local findLang = function(langcode)
	local langobj
	langcode = mw.text.trim(langcode or "")
	if mw.language.isKnownLanguageTag(langcode) then
		langobj = mw.language.new( langcode )
	else
		langcode = mw.getCurrentFrame():preprocess( '{{int:lang}}' )
		if mw.language.isKnownLanguageTag(langcode) then
			langobj = mw.language.new( langcode )
		else
			langobj = mw.language.getContentLanguage()
		end
	end
	return langobj
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- roundto takes a number (x)
-- and returns it rounded to (sf) significant figures
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local roundto = function(x, sf)
	if x == 0 then return 0 end
	local s = 1
	if x < 0 then
		x = -x
		s = -1
	end
	if sf < 1 then sf = 1 end
	local p = 10 ^ (math.floor(math.log10(x)) - sf + 1)
	x = math.floor(x / p + 0.5) * p * s
	-- if it's integral, cast to an integer:
	if x == math.floor(x) then x = math.floor(x) end
	return x
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- decimalToDMS takes a decimal degrees (x) with precision (p)
-- and returns degrees/minutes/seconds according to the precision
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local decimalToDMS = function(x, p)
	-- if p is not supplied, use a precision around 0.1 seconds
	if not tonumber(p) then p = 1e-4 end
	local d = math.floor(x)
	local ms = (x - d) * 60
	if p > 0.5 then -- precision is > 1/2 a degree
		if ms > 30 then d = d + 1 end
		ms = 0
	end
	local m = math.floor(ms)
	local s = (ms - m) * 60
	if p > 0.008 then -- precision is > 1/2 a minute
		if s > 30 then m = m +1 end
		s = 0
	elseif p > 0.00014 then -- precision is > 1/2 a second
		s = math.floor(s + 0.5)
	elseif p > 0.000014 then -- precision is > 1/20 second
		s = math.floor(10 * s + 0.5) / 10
	elseif p > 0.0000014 then -- precision is > 1/200 second
		s = math.floor(100 * s + 0.5) / 100
	else -- cap it at 3 dec places for now
		s = math.floor(1000 * s + 0.5) / 1000
	end
	return d, m, s
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- decimalPrecision takes a decimal (x) with precision (p)
-- and returns x rounded approximately to the given precision
-- precision should be between 1 and 1e-6, preferably a power of 10.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local decimalPrecision = function(x, p)
	local s = 1
	if x < 0 then
		x = -x
		s = -1
	end
	-- if p is not supplied, pick an arbitrary precision
	if not tonumber(p) then p = 1e-4
	elseif p > 1 then p = 1
	elseif p < 1e-6 then p = 1e-6
	else p = 10 ^ math.floor(math.log10(p))
	end
	x = math.floor(x / p + 0.5) * p * s
	-- if it's integral, cast to an integer:
	if  x == math.floor(x) then x = math.floor(x) end
	-- if it's less than 1e-4, it will be in exponent form, so return a string with 6dp
	-- 9e-5 becomes 0.000090
	if math.abs(x) < 1e-4 then x = string.format("%f", x) end
	return x
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- formatDate takes a datetime of the usual format from mw.wikibase.entity:formatPropertyValues
-- like "1 August 30 BCE" as parameter 1
-- and formats it according to the df (date format) and bc parameters
-- df = ["dmy" / "mdy" / "y"] default will be "dmy"
-- bc = ["BC" / "BCE"] default will be "BCE"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local format_Date = function(datetime, dateformat, bc)
	local datetime = datetime or "1 August 30 BCE" -- in case of nil value
	-- chop off multiple vales and/or any hours, mins, etc.
	-- keep anything before punctuation - we just want a single date:
	local dateval = string.match( datetime, "[%w ]+")

	local dateformat = string.lower(dateformat or "dmy") -- default to dmy

	local bc = string.upper(bc or "") -- can't use nil for bc
	-- we only want to accept two possibilities: BC or default to BCE
	if bc == "BC" then
		bc = "&nbsp;" .. i18n["BC"] -- prepend a non-breaking space.
	else
		bc = "&nbsp;" .. i18n["BCE"]
	end

	local postchrist = true -- start by assuming no BCE
	local dateparts = {}
	for word in string.gmatch(dateval, "%w+") do
		if word == "BCE" or word == "BC" then -- *** internationalise later ***
			postchrist = false
		else
			-- we'll keep the parts that are not 'BCE' in a table
			dateparts[#dateparts + 1] = word
		end
	end
	if postchrist then bc = "" end -- set AD dates to no suffix *** internationalise later ***

	local sep = "&nbsp;" -- separator is nbsp
	local fdate = table.concat(dateparts, sep) -- set formatted date to same order as input

	-- if we have day month year, check dateformat
	if #dateparts == 3 then
		if dateformat == "y" then
			fdate = dateparts[3]
		elseif dateformat == "mdy" then
			fdate = dateparts[2] .. sep .. dateparts[1] .. "," .. sep .. dateparts[3]
		end
	elseif #dateparts == 2 and dateformat == "y" then
		fdate = dateparts[2]
	end

	return fdate .. bc
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- dateFormat is the handler for properties that are of type "time"
-- It takes timestamp, precision (6 to 11 per mediawiki), dateformat (y/dmy/mdy), BC format (BC/BCE),
-- a plaindate switch (yes/no/adj) to en/disable "sourcing cirumstances"/use adjectival form,
-- any qualifiers for the property, the language, and any adjective to use like 'before'.
-- It passes the date through the "complex date" function
-- and returns a string with the internatonalised date formatted according to preferences.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang(); cdate(); dp[]
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local dateFormat = function(timestamp, dprec, df, bcf, pd, qualifiers, lang, adj)
	-- A year can be stored like this: "+1872-00-00T00:00:00Z",
	-- which is processed here as if it were the day before "+1872-01-01T00:00:00Z",
	-- and that's the last day of 1871, so the year is wrong.
	-- So fix the month 0, day 0 timestamp to become 1 January instead:
	timestamp = timestamp:gsub("%-00%-00T", "-01-01T")
	-- output formatting according to preferences (y/dmy/mdy)
	df = (df or ""):lower()
	-- just in case date precision is missing
	dprec = dprec or 11
	-- override more precise dates if required dateformat is year alone:
	if df == "y" and dprec > 9 then dprec = 9 end
	-- complex date only deals with precisions from 6 to 11, so clip range
	dprec = dprec>11 and 11 or dprec
	dprec = dprec<6 and 6 or dprec
	-- BC format is "BC" or "BCE"
	bcf = (bcf or ""):upper()
	-- plaindate only needs the first letter (y/n/a)
	pd = (pd or ""):sub(1,1)
	if pd == "" or pd == "n" or pd == "f" or pd == "0" then pd = false end
	-- in case language isn't passed
	lang = lang or findLang().code
	-- set adj as empty if nil
	adj = adj or ""
	-- extract the day, month, year from the timestamp
	local bc = timestamp:sub(1, 1)=="-" and "BC" or ""
	local year, month, day = timestamp:match("[+-](%d*)-(%d*)-(%d*)T")
	local iso = tonumber(year) -- if year is missing, let it throw an error
	-- this will adjust the date format to be compatible with cdate
	-- possible formats are Y, YY, YYY0, YYYY, YYYY-MM, YYYY-MM-DD
	if dprec == 6 then iso = math.floor( (iso - 1) / 1000 ) + 1 end
	if dprec == 7 then iso = math.floor( (iso - 1) / 100 ) + 1 end
	if dprec == 8 then iso = math.floor( iso / 10 ) .. "0" end
	if dprec == 10 then iso = year .. "-" .. month end
	if dprec == 11 then iso = year .. "-" .. month .. "-" .. day end
	-- add "circa" (Q5727902) from "sourcing circumstances" (P1480)
	local sc = not pd and qualifiers and qualifiers.P1480
	if sc then
		for k1, v1 in pairs(sc) do
			if v1.datavalue and v1.datavalue.value.id == "Q5727902" then
				adj = "circa"
				break
			end
		end
	end
	local fdate = cdate("", adj, tostring(iso), dp[dprec], bc, "", "", "", "", lang, 1)
	-- this may have QuickStatements info appended to it in a div, so remove that
	fdate = fdate:gsub(' <div style="display: none;">[^<]*</div>', '')
	-- it may also be returned wrapped in a microformat, so remove that
	fdate = fdate:gsub("<[^>]*>", "")
	-- if 'circa', use the abbreviated form *** internationalise later ***
	fdate = fdate:gsub('circa ', '<abbr title="circa">c.</abbr>&nbsp;')
	-- deal with BC/BCE
	if bcf == "BCE" then
		fdate = fdate:gsub('BC', 'BCE')
	end
	-- deal with mdy format
	if df == "mdy" then
		fdate = fdate:gsub("(%d+) (%w+) (%d+)", "%2 %1, %3")
	end
	-- deal with adjectival form *** internationalise later ***
	if pd == "a" then
		fdate = fdate:gsub(' century', '-century')
	end
	return fdate
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- parseParam takes a (string) parameter, e.g. from the list of frame arguments,
-- and makes "false", "no", and "0" into the (boolean) false
-- it makes the empty string and nil into the (boolean) value passed as default
-- allowing the parameter to be true or false by default.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local parseParam = function(param, default)
	if param and param ~= "" then
		param = param:lower()
		if (param == "false") or (param:sub(1,1) == "n") or (param == "0") then
			return false
		else
			return true
		end
	else
		return default
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- The label in a Wikidata item is subject to vulnerabilities
-- that an attacker might try to exploit.
-- It needs to be 'sanitised' by removing any wikitext before use.
-- If it doesn't exist, return the id for the item
-- a second (boolean) value is also returned, value is true when the label exists
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local labelOrId = function(id)
	local label = mw.wikibase.label(id)
	if label then
		return mw.text.nowiki(label), true
	else
		return id, false
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- linkedItem takes an entity-id and returns a string, linked if possible.
-- This is the handler for "wikibase-item". Preferences:
-- 1. Display linked disambiguated sitelink if it exists
-- 2. Display linked label if it is a redirect
-- 3. TBA: Display an inter-language link for the label if it exists other than in default language
-- 4. Display unlinked label if it exists
-- 5. Display entity-id for now to indicate a label could be provided
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: labelOrId()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local linkedItem = function(id, lprefix, lpostfix, prefix, postfix)
	lprefix = lprefix or "" -- toughen against nil values passed
	lpostfix = lpostfix or ""
	prefix = prefix or ""
	postfix = postfix or ""
	local disp
	local sitelink = mw.wikibase.sitelink(id)
	local label, islabel = labelOrId(id)
	if mw.site.siteName ~= "Wikimedia Commons" then
		if sitelink then
			-- strip any namespace or dab from the sitelink and use that as label
			local pos = sitelink:find(":") or 0
			label = sitelink:sub(pos+1):gsub("%s%(.+%)$", ""):gsub(",.+$", "")
			disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. sitelink .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
		elseif islabel then
			-- no sitelink, label exists, so check if a redirect with that title exists
			local artitle = mw.title.new(label, 0)
			if artitle and artitle.redirectTarget then
				-- there's a redirect with the same title as the label, so let's link to that
				disp = "[[".. lprefix .. label .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
			else
				-- no sitelink, label exists, not a redirect, so output the plain label
				disp = prefix .. label .. postfix
			end -- test if article title exists as redirect on current Wiki
		else
			-- no sitelink and no label, so return whatever was returned from labelOrId for now
			-- add tracking category [[Category:Articles with missing Wikidata information]]
			disp = prefix .. label .. postfix .. i18n.missinginfocat
		end
	else
		local ccat = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P373")[1]
		if ccat then
			ccat = ccat.mainsnak.datavalue.value
			disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. "Category:" .. ccat .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
		elseif sitelink then
			-- this asumes that if a sitelink exists, then a label also exists
			disp = "[[" .. lprefix .. sitelink .. lpostfix .. "|" .. prefix .. label .. postfix .. "]]"
		else
			-- no sitelink and no Commons cat, so return label from labelOrId for now
			disp = prefix .. label .. postfix
		end
	end
	return disp
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- sourced takes a table representing a statement that may or may not have references
-- it counts how many references are sourced to something not containing the word "wikipedia"
-- it returns a boolean = true if there are any sourced references.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local sourced = function(claim)
	if claim.references then
		for kr, vr in pairs(claim.references) do
			local ref = mw.wikibase.renderSnaks(vr.snaks)
			if not ref:find("Wikipedia") then
				return true
			end
		end
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- setRanks takes a flag (parameter passed) that requests the values to return
-- "b[est]" returns preferred if available, otherwise normal
-- "p[referred]" returns preferred
-- "n[ormal]" returns normal
-- "d[eprecated]" returns deprecated
-- multiple values are allowed, e.g. "preferred normal" (which is the default)
-- "best" will override the other flags, and set p and n
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local setRanks = function(rank)
	rank = (rank or ""):lower()
	-- if nothing passed, return preferred and normal
	-- if rank == "" then rank = "p n" end
	local ranks = {}
	for w in string.gmatch(rank, "%a+") do
		w = w:sub(1,1)
		if w == "b" or w == "p" or w == "n" or w == "d" then
			ranks[w] = true
		end
	end
	-- check if "best" is requested or no ranks requested; and if so, set preferred and normal
	if ranks.b or not next(ranks) then
		ranks.p = true
		ranks.n = true
	end
	return ranks
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- parseInput processes the Q-id , the blacklist and the whitelist
-- if an input parameter is supplied, it returns that and ends the call.
-- it returns (1) either the qid or nil indicating whether or not the call should continue
-- and (2) a table containing all of the statements for the propertyID and relevant Qid
-- if "best" ranks are requested, it returns those instead of all non-deprecated ranks
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local parseInput = function(frame, input_parm, property_id)
	-- There may be a local parameter supplied, if it's blank, set it to nil
	input_parm = mw.text.trim(input_parm or "")
	if input_parm == "" then input_parm = nil end

	local args = frame.args

	-- can take a named parameter |qid which is the Wikidata ID for the article.
	-- if it's not supplied, use the id for the current page
	local qid = args.qid or ""
	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
	-- if there's no Wikidata item for the current page return nil
	if not qid then return false, input_parm end

	-- The blacklist is passed in named parameter |suppressfields
	local blacklist = args.suppressfields or args.spf

	-- The whitelist is passed in named parameter |fetchwikidata
	local whitelist = args.fetchwikidata or args.fwd
	if not whitelist or whitelist == "" then whitelist = "NONE" end

	-- The name of the field that this function is called from is passed in named parameter |name
	local fieldname = args.name or ""

	if blacklist then
		-- The name is compulsory when blacklist is used, so return nil if it is not supplied
		if not fieldname or fieldname == "" then return false, nil end
		-- If this field is on the blacklist, then return nil
		if blacklist:find(fieldname) then return false, nil end
	end

	-- If we got this far then we're not on the blacklist
	-- The blacklist overrides any locally supplied parameter as well
	-- If a non-blank input parameter was supplied return it
	if input_parm then return false, input_parm end

	-- Otherwise see if this field is on the whitelist:
	-- needs a bit more logic because find will return its second value = 0 if fieldname is ""
	-- but nil if fieldname not found on whitelist
	local _, found = whitelist:find(fieldname)
	found = ((found or 0) > 0)
	if whitelist ~= 'ALL' and (whitelist:upper() == "NONE" or not found) then
		return false, nil
	end

	-- See what's on Wikidata (the call always returns a table, but it may be empty):
	local props = {}
	if args.reqranks.b then
		props = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, property_id)
	else
		props = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, property_id)
	end
	if props[1] then
		return qid, props
	end
	-- no property on Wikidata
	return false, nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- createicon assembles the "Edit at Wikidata" pen icon.
-- It returns a wikitext string.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: i18n[];
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local createicon = function(langcode, entityID, propertyID)
	local icon = "&nbsp;[[" .. i18n["filespace"]
	icon = icon .. ":Blue pencil.svg |frameless |text-top |10px |alt="
	icon = icon .. i18n["editonwikidata"]
	icon = icon .. "|link=https://www.wikidata.org/wiki/" .. entityID
	icon = icon .. "?uselang=" .. langcode
	icon = icon .. "#" .. propertyID .. "|" .. i18n["editonwikidata"] .. "]]"
	return icon
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- assembleoutput takes the sequence table containing the property values
-- and formats it according to switches given. It returns a string or nil.
-- It needs the entityID and propertyID to create a link in the pen icon.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local assembleoutput = function(out, args, entityID, propertyID)

	-- sorted is a boolean passed to enable sorting of the values returned
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
	-- if "false" or "no" or "0" is passed set it false
	local sorted = parseParam(args.sorted, false)

	-- noicon is a boolean passed to suppress the trailing "edit at Wikidata" icon
	-- for use when the value is processed further by the infobox
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
	-- if "false" or "no" or "0" is passed set it false
	local noic = parseParam(args.noicon, false)

	-- list is the name of a template that a list of multiple values is passed through
	-- examples include "hlist" and "ubl"
	-- setting it to "prose" produces something like "1, 2, 3, and 4"
	local list = args.list or ""

	-- sep is a string that is used to separate multiple returned values
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it to the default
	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
	-- e.g. |sep=" - "
	local sepdefault = i18n["list separator"]
	local separator = args.sep or ""
	separator = string.gsub(separator, '"', '')
	if separator == "" then
		separator = sepdefault
	end

	-- collapse is a number that determines the maximum number of returned values
	-- before the output is collapsed.
	-- Zero or not a number result in no collapsing (default becomes 0).
	local collapse = tonumber(args.collapse) or 0

	-- if there's anything to return, then return a list
	-- comma-separated by default, but may be specified by the sep parameter
	-- optionally specify a hlist or ubl or a prose list, etc.
	local strout
	if #out > 0 then
		if sorted then table.sort(out) end
		-- if a pen icon is wanted add it the end of the last value
		if not noic then
			out[#out] = out[#out] .. createicon(args.langobj.code, entityID, propertyID)
		end
		if list == "" then
			strout = table.concat(out, separator)
		elseif list:lower() == "prose" then
			strout = mw.text.listToText( out )
		else
			strout = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = list, args = out}
		end
		if collapse >0 and #out > collapse then
			strout = collapsediv .. strout .. "</div>"
		end
	else
		strout = nil -- no items had valid reference
	end
	return strout
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- rendersnak takes a table (propval) containing the information stored on one property value
-- and returns the value as a string and its language if monolingual text.
-- It handles data of type:
--		wikibase-item
--		time
--		string, url, commonsMedia, external-id
--		quantity
--		globe-coordinate
--		monolingualtext
-- It also requires linked, the link/pre/postfixes, uabbr, and the arguments passed from frame.
-- The optional filter parameter allows quantities to be be filtered by unit.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam(); labelOrId(); i18n[]; dateFormat();
-- roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local rendersnak = function(propval, args, linked, lpre, lpost, pre, post, uabbr, filter)
	lpre = lpre or ""
	lpost = lpost or ""
	pre = pre or ""
	post = post or ""
	local snak = propval.mainsnak or propval
	local dv = snak.datavalue
	local dtype = propval.datatype or propval.mainsnak.datatype
	dv = dv and dv.value
	-- value and monolingual text language code returned
	local val, mlt
	if propval.rank and not args.reqranks[propval.rank:sub(1, 1)] then
		-- val is nil: value has a rank that isn't requested
		------------------------------------
	elseif snak.snaktype == "somevalue" then -- value is unknown
		val = i18n["Unknown"]
		------------------------------------
	elseif snak.snaktype == "novalue" then -- value is none
		-- val = "No value" -- don't return anything
		------------------------------------
	elseif dtype == "wikibase-item" then -- data type is a wikibase item:
		-- it's wiki-linked value, so output as link if enabled and possible
		local qnumber = dv.id
		if linked then
			val = linkedItem(qnumber, lpre, lpost, pre, post)
		else -- no link wanted so test for lang code
			local label, islabel = labelOrId(qnumber)
			local langlabel = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(qnumber, args.lang)
			if langlabel then
				label = mw.text.nowiki( langlabel )
			end
			val = pre .. label .. post
		end -- test for link required
		------------------------------------
	elseif dtype == "time" then -- data type is time:
		-- time is in timestamp format
		-- date precision is integer per mediawiki
		-- output formatting according to preferences (y/dmy/mdy)
		-- BC format as BC or BCE
		-- plaindate is passed to disable looking for "sourcing cirumstances"
		-- or to set the adjectival form
		-- qualifiers (if any) is a nested table or nil
		-- lang is given, or user language, or site language
		val = dateFormat(dv.time, dv.precision, args.df, args.bc, pd, propval.qualifiers, args.lang)
		------------------------------------
	-- data types which are strings:
	elseif dtype == "commonsMedia" or dtype == "external-id" or dtype == "string" or dtype == "url" then
		-- commonsMedia or external-id or string or url
		-- all have mainsnak.datavalue.value as string
		if (lpre == "" or lpre == ":") and lpost == "" then
			-- don't link if no linkpre/postfix or linkprefix is just ":"
			val = pre .. dv .. post
		else
			val = "[[" .. lpre .. dv .. lpost .. "|" .. pre .. dv .. post .. "]]"
		end -- check for link requested (i.e. either linkprefix or linkpostfix exists)
		------------------------------------
	-- data types which are quantities:
	elseif dtype == "quantity" then
		-- quantities have mainsnak.datavalue.value.amount and mainsnak.datavalue.value.unit
		-- the unit is of the form http://www.wikidata.org/entity/Q829073
		--
		-- implement a switch to turn on/off numerical formatting later
		local fnum = true
		--
		-- a switch to turn on/off conversions - only for en-wiki
		local conv = parseParam(args.conv or args.convert, false)
		-- if we have conversions, we won't have formatted numbers or scales
		if conv then
			fnum = false
			args.scale = 0
		end
		--
		-- convert amount to a number
		local amount = tonumber(dv.amount) or i18n["NaN"]
		--
		-- scale factor for millions, billions, etc.
		local sc = (args.scale or ""):sub(1,1):lower()
		local scale
		if sc == "a" then
			-- automatic scaling
			if amount > 1e15 then
				scale = 12
			elseif amount > 1e12 then
				scale = 9
			elseif amount > 1e9 then
				scale = 6
			elseif amount > 1e6 then
				scale = 3
			else
				scale = 0
			end
		else
			scale = tonumber(args.scale) or 0
			if scale < 0 or scale > 12 then scale = 0 end
			scale = math.floor(scale/3) * 3
		end
		local factor = 10^scale
		amount = amount / factor
		-- ranges:
		local range = ""
		-- check if upper and/or lower bounds are given and significant
		local upb = tonumber(dv.upperBound)
		local lowb = tonumber(dv.lowerBound)
		if upb and lowb then
			-- differences rounded to 2 sig fig:
			local posdif = roundto(upb - amount, 2) / factor
			local negdif = roundto(amount - lowb, 2) / factor
			upb, lowb = amount + posdif, amount - negdif
			-- round scaled numbers to integers or 4 sig fig
			if (scale > 0 or sc == "a") then
				if amount < 1e4 then
					amount = roundto(amount, 4)
				else
					amount = math.floor(amount + 0.5)
				end
			end
			if fnum then amount = args.langobj:formatNum( amount ) end
			if posdif ~= negdif then
				-- non-symmetrical
				range = " +" .. posdif .. " -" .. negdif
			elseif posdif ~= 0 then
				-- symmetrical and non-zero
				range = " ±" .. posdif
			else
				-- otherwise range is zero, so leave it as ""
			end
		else
			-- round scaled numbers to integers or 4 sig fig
			if (scale > 0 or sc == "a") then
				if amount < 1e4 then
					amount = roundto(amount, 4)
				else
					amount = math.floor(amount + 0.5)
				end
			end
			if fnum then amount = args.langobj:formatNum( amount ) end
		end
		-- unit names and symbols:
		-- extract the qid in the form 'Qnnn' from the value.unit url
		-- and then fetch the label from that - or symbol if unitabbr is true
		local unit = ""
		local usep = ""
		local usym = ""
		local unitqid = string.match( dv.unit, "(Q%d+)" )
		if filter and unitqid ~= filter then return nil end
		if unitqid then
			local uname = mw.wikibase.getLabelByLang(unitqid, args.lang) or ""
			if uname ~= "" then usep, unit = " ", uname end
			if uabbr then
				-- see if there's a unit symbol (P5061)
				local unitsymbols = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(unitqid, "P5061")
				-- construct fallback table
				local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( args.lang )
				table.insert( fbtbl, 1, args.lang )
				found = false
				for idx1, us in ipairs(unitsymbols) do
					for idx2, fblang in ipairs(fbtbl) do
						if us.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == fblang then
							usym = us.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text
							found = true
							break
						end
					if found then break end
					end -- loop through fallback table
				end -- loop through values of P5061
				if found then usep, unit = "&nbsp;", usym end
			end
		end
		-- format display:
		if conv and usym ~= "" then
			if range == "" then
				val = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "cvt", args = {amount, usym}}
			else
				val = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "cvt", args = {lowb, "to", upb, usym}}
			end
		elseif unit == "$" or unit == "£" then
			val = unit .. amount .. range .. i18n.multipliers[scale]
		else
			val = amount .. range .. i18n.multipliers[scale] .. usep .. unit
		end
		------------------------------------
	-- datatypes which are global coordinates:
	elseif dtype == "globe-coordinate" then
		-- 'display' parameter defaults to "inline, title" *** unused for now ***
		-- local disp = args.display or ""
		-- if disp == "" then disp = "inline, title" end
		--
		-- format parameter switches from deg/min/sec to decimal degrees
		-- default is deg/min/sec -- decimal degrees needs |format = dec
		local form = (args.format or ""):lower():sub(1,3)
		if form ~= "dec" then form = "dms" end
		--
		-- show parameter allows just the latitude or longitude to be shown
		local show = (args.show or ""):lower()
		if show ~= "longlat" then show = show:sub(1,3) end
		--
		local lat, long, prec = dv.latitude, dv.longitude, dv.precision
		if show == "lat" then
			val = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
		elseif show == "lon" then
			val = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
		elseif show == "longlat" then
			val = decimalPrecision(long, prec) .. ", " .. decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
		else
			local ns = "N"
			local ew = "E"
			if lat < 0 then
				ns = "S"
				lat = - lat
			end
			if long < 0 then
				ew = "W"
				long = - long
			end
			if form == "dec" then
				lat = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
				long = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
				val = lat .. "°" .. ns .. " " .. long ..  "°" .. ew
			else
				local latdeg, latmin, latsec = decimalToDMS(lat, prec)
				local longdeg, longmin, longsec = decimalToDMS(long, prec)

				if latsec == 0 and longsec == 0 then
					if latmin == 0 and longmin == 0 then
						val = latdeg .. "°" .. ns .. " " .. longdeg ..  "°" .. ew
					else
						val = latdeg .. "°" .. latmin .. "′" .. ns .. " "
						out[#out] = out[#out] .. longdeg .. "°".. longmin .. "′" .. ew
					end
				else
					val = latdeg .. "°" .. latmin .. "′" .. latsec .. "″" .. ns .. " "
					val = val .. longdeg .. "°" .. longmin .. "′" .. longsec .. "″" .. ew
				end
			end
		end
		------------------------------------
	elseif dtype == "monolingualtext" then -- data type is Monolingual text:
		-- has mainsnak.datavalue.value as a table containing language/text pairs
		-- collect all the values in 'out' and languages in 'mlt' and process them later
		val = pre .. dv.text .. post
		mlt = dv.language
		------------------------------------
	else
		-- some other data type so write a specific handler
		val = "unknown data type: " .. dtype
	end -- of datatype/unknown value/sourced check
	return val, mlt
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- propertyvalueandquals takes a property object, the arguments passed from frame,
-- and a qualifier propertyID.
-- It returns a sequence (table) of values representing the values of that property
-- and qualifiers that match the qualifierID if supplied.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam(); sourced(); labelOrId(); i18n.latestdatequalifier(); format_Date();
-- makeOrdinal(); roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS(); assembleoutput();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local function propertyvalueandquals(objproperty, args, qualID)
	-- needs this style of declaration because it's re-entrant

	-- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return only values sourced to other than Wikipedia
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
	local onlysrc = parseParam(args.onlysourced or args.osd, true)

	-- linked is a a boolean that enables the link to a local page via sitelink
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
	local linked = parseParam(args.linked, true)

	-- prefix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
	-- this is prefixed to each value
	-- useful when when multiple values are returned
	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
	local prefix = (args.prefix or ""):gsub('"', '')

	-- postfix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
	-- this is postfixed to each value
	-- useful when when multiple values are returned
	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
	local postfix = (args.postfix or ""):gsub('"', '')

	-- linkprefix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
	-- this creates a link and is then prefixed to each value
	-- useful when when multiple values are returned and indirect links are needed
	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
	local lprefix = (args.linkprefix or args.lp or ""):gsub('"', '')

	-- linkpostfix is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a string of characters
	-- this is postfixed to each value when linking is enabled with lprefix
	-- useful when when multiple values are returned
	-- any double-quotes " are stripped out, so that spaces may be passed
	local lpostfix = (args.linkpostfix or ""):gsub('"', '')

	-- wdlinks is a boolean passed to enable links to Wikidata when no article exists
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
	local wdl = parseParam(args.wdlinks or args.wdl, false)

	-- unitabbr is a boolean passed to enable unit abbreviations for common units
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
	local uabbr = parseParam(args.unitabbr or args.uabbr, false)

	-- qualsonly is a boolean passed to return just the qualifiers
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it false
	local qualsonly = parseParam(args.qualsonly or args.qo, false)

	-- maxvals is a string that may be nil, empty (""), or a number
	-- this determines how many items may be returned when multiple values are available
	-- setting it = 1 is useful where the returned string is used within another call, e.g. image
	local maxvals = tonumber(args.maxvals) or 0

	-- pd (plain date) is a string: yes/true/1 | no/false/0 | adj
	-- to disable/enable "sourcing cirumstances" or use adjectival form for the plain date
	local pd = args.plaindate or args.pd or "no"

	local lang = args.lang
	-- all proper values of a Wikidata property will be the same type as the first
	-- qualifiers don't have a mainsnak, properties do
	local datatype = objproperty[1].datatype or objproperty[1].mainsnak.datatype
	-- out holds the values for this property
	-- mlt holds the language code if the datatype is monolingual text
	local out = {}
	local mlt = {}
	for k, v in pairs(objproperty) do
		if (onlysrc and not sourced(v)) or (qualsonly and qualID) then
			-- no value: it isn't sourced when onlysourced=true
			-- or only qualifiers are requested
		else
			out[#out+1], mlt[#out+1] = rendersnak(v, args, linked, lprefix, lpostfix, prefix, postfix, uabbr)
		end

		-- See if qualifiers are to be returned:
		local snak = v.mainsnak or v
		if v.qualifiers and qualID and snak.snaktype=="value" then
			local qsep = (args.qsep or ""):gsub('"', '')
			local qargs = {
				["osd"]         = "false",
				["linked"]      = tostring(linked),
				["prefix"]      = args.qprefix,
				["postfix"]     = args.qpostfix,
				["linkprefix"]  = args.qlinkprefix or args.qlp,
				["linkpostfix"] = args.qlinkpostfix,
				["wdl"]         = "false",
				["unitabbr"]    = tostring(uabbr),
				["maxvals"]     = 0,
				["sorted"]      = args.qsorted,
				["noicon"]      = "true",
				["list"]        = args.qlist,
				["sep"]         = qsep,
				["langobj"]     = args.langobj,
				["lang"]        = args.langobj.code,
			}
			local qlist = {}
			local t1, t2 = "", ""
			-- see if we want all qualifiers
			if qualID == "ALL" then
				if v["qualifiers-order"] then
					-- the values in the order table are the keys for the qualifiers table:
					for k1, v1 in ipairs(v["qualifiers-order"]) do
						if v1 == "P1326" then
							local ts = v.qualifiers[v1][1].datavalue.value.time
							local dp = v.qualifiers[v1][1].datavalue.value.precision
							qlist[#qlist + 1] = dateFormat(ts, dp, args.df, args.bc, pd, "", lang, "before")
						else
							qlist[#qlist + 1] = assembleoutput(propertyvalueandquals(v.qualifiers[v1], qargs), qargs)
						end
					end
				else
					local ql = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)
					for k1, v1 in ipairs(ql) do
						if k1 == "P1326" then
							local ts = v1[1].datavalue.value.time
							local dp = v1[1].datavalue.value.precision
							qlist[#qlist + 1] = dateFormat(ts, dp, args.df, args.bc, pd, "", lang, "before")
						else
							qlist[#qlist + 1] = v1
						end
					end
				end
			-- see if we want date/range
			elseif qualID == "DATES" then
				qargs.maxvals = 1
				for k1, v1 in pairs(v.qualifiers) do
					if k1 == "P580" then -- P580 is "start time"
						t1 = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)[1] or ""
					elseif k1 == "P582" then -- P582 is "end time"
						t2 = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)[1] or ""
					end
				end
			-- otherwise process qualID as a list of qualifiers
			else
				for q in mw.text.gsplit(qualID, "%p") do -- split at punctuation and iterate
					q = mw.text.trim(q):upper() -- remove whitespace and capitalise
					if q == "P1326" then
						-- latest date, so supply 'before' as well. Assume one date value.
						for k1, v1 in pairs(v.qualifiers) do
							if k1 == "P1326" then
								local ts = v1[1].datavalue.value.time
								local dp = v1[1].datavalue.value.precision
								qlist[#qlist + 1] = dateFormat(ts, dp, args.df, args.bc, pd, "", lang, "before")
							end
						end
					else
						for k1, v1 in pairs(v.qualifiers) do
							if k1 == q then
								local ql = propertyvalueandquals(v1, qargs)
								for k2, v2 in ipairs(ql) do
									qlist[#qlist + 1] = v2
								end
							end
						end
					end
				end -- of loop through list of qualifiers in qualID
			end -- of testing for what qualID is
			local t = t1 .. t2
			-- *** internationalise date separators later ***
			if t:find("%s") or t:find("&nbsp;") then dsep = "  &ndash; " else dsep = "&ndash;" end
			if #qlist > 0 then
				local qstr = assembleoutput(qlist, qargs)
				if qualsonly then
					out[#out+1] = qstr
				else
					out[#out] = out[#out] .. " (" .. qstr .. ")"
				end
			elseif t > "" then
				-- *** internationalise date separators later ***
				local dsep = "&ndash;"
				if t:find("%s") or t:find("&nbsp;") then dsep = "  &ndash; " end
				if qualsonly then
					out[#out+1] = t1 .. dsep .. t2
				else
					out[#out] = out[#out] .. " (" .. t1 .. dsep .. t2 .. ")"
				end
			end
		end -- of test for qualifiers wanted

		if maxvals > 0 and #out >= maxvals then break end
	end -- of for each value loop

	-- we need to pick one value to return if the datatype was "monolingualtext"
	-- if there's only one value, use that
	-- otherwise look through the fallback languages for a match
	if datatype == "monolingualtext" and #out >1 then
		local langcode = args.langobj.code
		langcode = mw.text.split( langcode, '-', true )[1]
		local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( langcode )
		table.insert( fbtbl, 1, langcode )
		bestval = ""
		found = false
		for idx1, lang1 in ipairs(fbtbl) do
			for idx2, lang2 in ipairs(mlt) do
				if (lang1 == lang2) and not found then
					bestval = out[idx2]
					found = true
					break
				end
			end -- loop through values of property
		end -- loop through fallback languages
		if found then
			-- replace output table with a table containing the best value
			out = { bestval }
		else
			-- more than one value and none of them on the list of fallback languages
			-- sod it, just give them the first one
			out = { out[1] }
		end
	end
	return out
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Common code for p.getValueByQual and p.getValueByLang
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _getvaluebyqual = function(frame, qualID, checkvalue)

	-- The property ID that will have a qualifier is the first unnamed parameter
	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
	if propertyID == "" then return "no property supplied" end

	if qualID == "" then return "no qualifier supplied" end

	-- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return property values
	-- only when property values are sourced to something other than Wikipedia
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
	-- if "false" or "no" or 0 is passed set it false
	local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)

	-- set the requested ranks flags
	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)

	-- set a language object and code in the frame.args table
	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code

	-- check for locally supplied parameter in second unnamed parameter
	-- success means no local parameter and the property exists
	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)

	if qid then
		local out = {}
		-- Scan through the values of the property
		-- we want something like property is "pronunciation audio (P443)" in propertyID
		-- with a qualifier like "language of work or name (P407)" in qualID
		-- whose value has the required ID, like "British English (Q7979)", in qval
		for k1, v1 in pairs(props) do
			if v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and v1.mainsnak.datavalue.type == "string" then
				-- We'll only deal with returning strings for now
				-- so check if it has the right qualifier
				local v1q = v1.qualifiers
				if v1q and v1q[qualID] then
					if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
						-- if we've got this far, we have a (sourced) claim with qualifiers
						-- so see if matches the required value
						-- We'll only deal with wikibase-items for now
						if v1q[qualID][1].datatype == "wikibase-item" then
							if checkvalue(v1q[qualID][1].datavalue.value.id) then
								out[#out + 1] = v1.mainsnak.datavalue.value
							end
						end
					end -- of check for sourced
				end -- of check for matching required value and has qualifiers
			else
				return "not string"
			end -- of check for string
		end -- of loop through values of propertyID
		return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
	else
		return props -- either local parameter or nothing
	end -- of test for success
	return nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- _location takes Q-id and follows P131 (located in the administrative territorial entity)
-- or P276 (location) or P706 (located on terrain feature)
-- from the initial item to higher level territories/locations until it reaches the highest.
-- An optional boolean, 'first', determines whether the first item is returned (default: false).
-- An optional boolean 'skip' toggles the display to skip to the last item (default: false).
-- It returns a table containing the locations - linked where possible, except for the highest.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang(); labelOrId(); linkedItem
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
local _location = function(qid, first, skip)
	first = parseParam(first, false)
	skip = parseParam(skip, false)
	local out = {}
	local langcode = findLang():getCode()
	local finished = false
	local count = 0
	repeat
		local prop = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P131")[1] or mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P276")[1] or mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P706")[1]
		-- check if it's an instance of (P31) a country (Q6256) and terminate the chain if it is
		local inst = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, "P31")
		if #inst > 0 then
			for k, v in ipairs(inst) do
				local instid = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
				-- stop if it's a country (or a country within the United Kingdom if skip is true)
				if instid == "Q6256" or (skip and instid == "Q3336843") then
					prop = nil -- this will ensure this is treated as top-level location
					break
				end
			end
		end
		if prop and prop.mainsnak.datavalue then
			if not skip or count == 0 then
				out[#out+1] = linkedItem(qid, ":", "", "", "") -- get a linked value if we can
			end
			qid = prop.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
		else
			-- This is top-level location, so get short name  except when this is the first item
			-- Use full label if there's no short name or this is the first item
			props = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements(qid, "P1813")
			-- if there's a short name and this isn't the only item
			if props[1] and (#out > 0)then
				local shortname
				-- short name is monolingual text, so look for match to the local language
				-- choose the shortest 'short name' in that language
				for k, v in pairs(props) do
					if v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.language == langcode then
						local name = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.text
						if (not shortname) or (#name < #shortname) then
							shortname = name
						end
					end
				end
				-- add the shortname if one is found, fallback to the label
				-- but skip it if it's "USA"
				if shortname ~= "USA" then
					out[#out+1] = shortname or labelOrId(qid)
				else
					if skip then out[#out+1] = "US" end
				end
			else
				-- no shortname, so just add the label
				local loc = labelOrId(qid)
				-- exceptions go here:
				if loc == "United States of America" then
					out[#out+1] = "United States"
				else
					out[#out+1] = loc
				end
			end
			finished = true
		end
		count = count + 1
	until finished or count >= 10 -- limit to 10 levels to avoid infinite loops
	if not first then table.remove(out, 1) end
	return out
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Public functions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValue is used to get the value(s) of a property
-- The property ID is passed as the first unnamed parameter and is required.
-- A locally supplied parameter may optionaly be supplied as the second unnamed parameter.
-- The function will now also return qualifiers if parameter qual is supplied
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput; parseParam; sourced; 
-- labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date; makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValue = function(frame)
	if not frame.args[1] then
		frame.args = frame:getParent().args
		if not frame.args[1] then return i18n.errors["No property supplied"] end
	end

	-- parameter sets for commonly used groups of parameters
	local paraset = tonumber(frame.args.ps or frame.args.parameterset or 0)
	if paraset == 1 then
		frame.args.rank = "best"
		frame.args.fetchwikidata = "ALL"
		frame.args.onlysourced = "no"
		frame.args.noicon = "true"
	elseif paraset == 2 then
		-- second set goes here
	end

	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")

	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)

	local entityid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)

	if not entityid then
		return props -- either the input parameter or nothing
	end
	-- qual is a string containing the property ID of the qualifier(s) to be returned
	-- if qual == "ALL" then all qualifiers returned
	-- if qual == "DATES" then qualifiers P580 (start time) and P582 (end time) returned
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it nil -> no qualifiers returned
	local qualID = mw.text.trim(frame.args.qual or ""):upper()
	if qualID == "" then qualID = nil end

	-- set a language object and code in the frame.args table
	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code

	-- table 'out' stores the return value(s):
	local out = propertyvalueandquals(props, frame.args, qualID)

	-- format the table of values and return it as a string:
	return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, entityid, propertyID)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getPreferredValue is used to get a value,
-- (or a comma separated list of them if multiple values exist).
-- If preferred ranks are set, it will return those values, otherwise values with normal ranks
-- now redundant to getValue with |rank=best
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: p.getValue; setRanks; parseInput; propertyvalueandquals; assembleoutput;
-- parseParam; sourced; labelOrId; i18n.latestdatequalifier; format_Date;
-- makeOrdinal; roundto; decimalPrecision; decimalToDMS;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getPreferredValue = function(frame)
	frame.args.rank = "best"
	return p.getValue(frame)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getCoords is used to get coordinates for display in an infobox
-- whitelist and blacklist are implemented
-- optional 'display' parameter is allowed, defaults to "inline, title"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: setRanks(); parseInput(); decimalPrecision();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getCoords = function(frame)
	local propertyID = "P625"

	-- if there is a 'display' parameter supplied, use it
	-- otherwise default to "inline, title"
	local disp = frame.args.display or ""
	if disp == "" then
		disp = "inline, title"
	end

	-- there may be a format parameter to switch from deg/min/sec to decimal degrees
	-- default is deg/min/sec
	-- decimal degrees needs |format = dec
	local form = (frame.args.format or ""):lower():sub(1,3)
	if form ~= "dec" then
		form = "dms"
	end

	-- just deal with best values
	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks("best")

	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[1], propertyID)
	if not qid then
		return props -- either local parameter or nothing
	else
		dv = props[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value
		local lat, long, prec = dv.latitude, dv.longitude, dv.precision
		lat = decimalPrecision(lat, prec)
		long = decimalPrecision(long, prec)
		local lat_long = { lat, long }
		lat_long["display"] = disp
		lat_long["format"] = form
		-- invoke template Coord with the values stored in the table
		return frame:expandTemplate{title = 'coord', args = lat_long}
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getQualifierValue is used to get a formatted value of a qualifier
--
-- The call needs:	a property (the unnamed parameter or 1=)
-- 					a target value for that property (pval=)
--					a qualifier for that target value (qual=)
-- The usual whitelisting and blacklisting of the property is implemented
-- The boolean onlysourced= parameter can be set to return nothing
-- when the property is unsourced (or only sourced to Wikipedia)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam(); setRanks(); parseInput(); sourced();
-- propertyvalueandquals(); assembleoutput();
-- labelOrId(); i18n.latestdatequalifier(); format_Date();
-- findLang(); makeOrdinal(); roundto(); decimalPrecision(); decimalToDMS();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getQualifierValue = function(frame)

	-- The property ID that will have a qualifier is the first unnamed parameter
	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")

	-- The value of the property we want to match whose qualifier value is to be returned
	-- is passed in named parameter |pval=
	local propvalue = frame.args.pval

	-- The property ID of the qualifier
	-- whose value is to be returned is passed in named parameter |qual=
	local qualifierID = frame.args.qual

	-- onlysourced is a boolean passed to return qualifiers
	-- only when property values are sourced to something other than Wikipedia
	-- if nothing or an empty string is passed set it true
	-- if "false" or "no" or 0 is passed set it false
	local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)

	-- set a language object in the frame.args table
	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)

	-- set the requested ranks flags
	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)

	-- check for locally supplied parameter in second unnamed parameter
	-- success means no local parameter and the property exists
	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)
	if qid then
		local out = {}
		-- Scan through the values of the property
		-- we want something like property is P793, significant event (in propertyID)
		-- whose value is something like Q385378, construction (in propvalue)
		-- then we can return the value(s) of a qualifier such as P580, start time (in qualifierID)
		for k1, v1 in pairs(props) do
			if v1.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and v1.mainsnak.datavalue.type == "wikibase-entityid" then
				-- It's a wiki-linked value, so check if it's the target (in propvalue)
				-- and if it has qualifiers
				if v1.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == propvalue and v1.qualifiers then
					if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
						-- if we've got this far, we have a (sourced) claim with qualifiers
						-- which matches the target, so find the value(s) of the qualifier we want
						local quals = v1.qualifiers[qualifierID]
						if quals then
							-- can't reference qualifer, so set onlysourced = "no" (not boolean)
							local qargs = frame.args
							qargs.onlysourced = "no"
							local vals = propertyvalueandquals(quals, qargs, qid)
							for k, v in pairs(vals) do
								out[#out + 1] = v
							end
						end
					end -- of check for sourced
				end -- of check for matching required value and has qualifiers
			end -- of check for wikibase entity
		end -- of loop through values of propertyID
		return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
	else
		return props -- either local parameter or nothing
	end -- of test for success
	return nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValueByQual gets the value of a property which has a qualifier with a given entity value
-- The call needs:
--					a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
--					the ID of a qualifier for that property (qualID=Pyyy)
--					the Wikibase-entity ID of a value for that qualifier (qvalue=Qzzz)
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getvaluebyqual; parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced;
-- assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValueByQual = function(frame)
	local qualID = frame.args.qualID
	-- The Q-id of the value for the qualifier we want to match is in named parameter |qvalue=
	local qval = frame.args.qvalue or ""
	if qval == "" then return "no qualifier value supplied" end
	local function checkQID(id)
		return id == qval
	end
	return _getvaluebyqual(frame, qualID, checkQID)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValueByLang gets the value of a property which has a qualifier P407
-- ("language of work or name") whose value has the given language code
-- The call needs:
--					a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
--					the MediaWiki language code to match the language (lang=xx[-yy])
--					(if no code is supplied, it uses the default language)
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _getvaluebyqual; parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValueByLang = function(frame)

	-- The language code for the qualifier we want to match is in named parameter |lang=
	local langcode = frame.args.lang or ""
	if langcode == "" then
		langcode = frame:callParserFunction{ name = "int", args = "lang" }
	end
	function checkLanguage(id)
		-- id should represent a language like "British English (Q7979)"
		-- it should have string property "Wikimedia language code (P424)"
		-- qlcode will be a table:
		local qlcode = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(id, "P424")
		if (#qlcode > 0) and (qlcode[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value == langcode) then
			return true
		end
	end
	return _getvaluebyqual(frame, "P407", checkLanguage)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValueByRefSource gets the value of a property which has a reference "stated in" (P248)
-- whose value has the given entity code.
-- The call needs:
--					a property ID (the unnamed parameter or 1=Pxxx)
--					the entity ID of a value to match where the reference is stated in (match=Qzzz)
-- The usual whitelisting, blacklisting, onlysourced, etc. are implemented
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: parseParam; setRanks; parseInput; sourced; propertyvalueandquals assembleoutput;
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getValueByRefSource = function(frame)
	-- The property ID that we want to check is the first unnamed parameter
	local propertyID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or ""):upper()
	if propertyID == "" then return "no property supplied" end

	-- The Q-id of the value we want to match is in named parameter |qvalue=
	local qval = (frame.args.match or ""):upper()
	if qval == "" then qval = "Q21540096" end

	local unit = (frame.args.unit or ""):upper()
	if unit == "" then unit = "Q4917" end

	local onlysrc = parseParam(frame.args.onlysourced or frame.args.osd, true)

	-- set the requested ranks flags
	frame.args.reqranks = setRanks(frame.args.rank)

	-- set a language object and code in the frame.args table
	frame.args.langobj = findLang(frame.args.lang)
	frame.args.lang = frame.args.langobj.code

	local linked = parseParam(frame.args.linked, true)

	local uabbr = parseParam(frame.args.uabbr or frame.args.unitabbr, false)

	-- qid not nil means no local parameter and the property exists
	local qid, props = parseInput(frame, frame.args[2], propertyID)

	if qid then
		local out = {}
		local mlt= {}
		for k1, v1 in pairs(props) do
			if onlysrc == false or sourced(v1) then
				if v1.references then
					for k2, v2 in pairs(v1.references) do
						if v2.snaks.P248 then
							for k3, v3 in pairs(v2.snaks.P248) do
								if v3.datavalue.value.id == qval then
									out[#out+1], mlt[#out+1] = rendersnak(v1, frame.args, linked, "", "", "", "", uabbr, unit)
									if not mlt[#out] then
										-- we only need one match per property value
										-- unless datatype was monolingual text
										break
									end
								end -- of test for match
							end -- of loop through values "stated in"
						end -- of test that "stated in" exists
					end -- of loop through references
				end -- of test that references exist
			end -- of test for sourced
		end -- of loop through values of propertyID
		if #mlt > 0 then
			local langcode = frame.args.lang
			langcode = mw.text.split( langcode, '-', true )[1]
			local fbtbl = mw.language.getFallbacksFor( langcode )
			table.insert( fbtbl, 1, langcode )
			bestval = ""
			found = false
			for idx1, lang1 in ipairs(fbtbl) do
				for idx2, lang2 in ipairs(mlt) do
					if (lang1 == lang2) and not found then
						bestval = out[idx2]
						found = true
						break
					end
				end -- loop through values of property
			end -- loop through fallback languages
			if found then
				-- replace output table with a table containing the best value
				out = { bestval }
			else
				-- more than one value and none of them on the list of fallback languages
				-- sod it, just give them the first one
				out = { out[1] }
			end
		end
		return assembleoutput(out, frame.args, qid, propertyID)
	else
		return props -- no property or local parameter supplied
	end -- of test for success
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getLink has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
-- If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns a link to the article
-- with the Wikidata label as the displayed text.
-- If there is no sitelink, it returns the label as plain text.
-- If there is no label in the local language, it displays the qid instead.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getLink = function(frame)
	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
	if itemID == "" then return end
	local sitelink = mw.wikibase.sitelink(itemID)
	local label = labelOrId(itemID)
	if sitelink then
		return "[[:" .. sitelink .. "|" .. label .. "]]"
	else
		return label
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getLabel has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
-- It returns the Wikidata label for the local language as plain text.
-- If there is no label in the local language, it displays the qid instead.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getLabel = function(frame)
	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
	if itemID == "" then return end
	local label = labelOrId(itemID)
	return label
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAT has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as the first unnamed parameter or as |qid=
-- If there is a sitelink to an article on the local Wiki, it returns the sitelink as plain text.
-- If there is no sitelink, it returns nothing.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAT = function(frame)
	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or frame.args.qid or "")
	if itemID == "" then return end
	return mw.wikibase.sitelink(itemID)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getDescription has the qid of a Wikidata entity passed as |qid=
-- (it defaults to the associated qid of the current article if omitted)
-- and a local parameter passed as the first unnamed parameter.
-- Any local parameter passed (other than "Wikidata" or "none") becomes the return value.
-- It returns the article description for the Wikidata entity if the local parameter is "Wikidata".
-- Nothing is returned if the description doesn't exist or "none" is passed as the local parameter.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getDescription = function(frame)
	local desc = mw.text.trim(frame.args[1] or "")
	local itemID = mw.text.trim(frame.args.qid or "")
	if itemID == "" then itemID = nil end
	if desc:lower() == 'wikidata' then
		return mw.wikibase.description(itemID)
	elseif desc:lower() == 'none' then
		return nil
	else
		return desc
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- pageId returns the page id (entity ID, Qnnn) of the current page
-- returns nothing if the page is not connected to Wikidata
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.pageId = function(frame)
	return mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- formatDate is a wrapper to export the private function format_Date
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: format_Date();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.formatDate = function(frame)
	return format_Date(frame.args[1], frame.args.df, frame.args.bc)
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- location is a wrapper to export the private function _location
-- it takes the entity-id as qid or the first unnamed parameter
-- optional boolean parameter first toggles the display of the first item
-- optional boolean parameter skip toggles the display to skip to the last item
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: _location();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.location = function(frame)
	local qid = mw.text.trim(frame.args.qid or frame.args[1] or ""):upper()
	if qid == "" then return "No id supplied" end
	local first = mw.text.trim(frame.args.first or "")
	local skip = mw.text.trim(frame.args.skip or "")
	return table.concat( _location(qid, first, skip), ", " )
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- checkBlacklist implements a test to check whether a named field is allowed
-- returns true if the field is not blacklisted (i.e. allowed)
-- returns false if the field is blacklisted (i.e. disallowed)
-- {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=Joe |suppressfields=Dave; Joe; Fred}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}}
-- displays "blacklisted"
-- {{#if:{{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkBlacklist |name=Jim |suppressfields=Dave; Joe; Fred}} | not blacklisted | blacklisted}}
-- displays "not blacklisted"
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.checkBlacklist = function(frame)
	local blacklist = frame.args.suppressfields or frame.args.spf or ""
	local fieldname = frame.args.name or ""
	if blacklist ~= "" and fieldname ~= "" then
		if blacklist:find(fieldname) then
			return false
		else
			return true
		end
	else
		-- one of the fields is missing: let's call that "not on the list"
		return true
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- emptyor returns nil if its first unnamed argument is just punctuation, whitespace or html tags
-- otherwise it returns the argument unchanged (including leading/trailing space).
-- If the argument may contain "=", then it must be called explicitly:
-- |1=arg
-- (In that case, leading and trailing spaces are trimmed)
-- It finds use in infoboxes where it can replace tests like:
-- {{#if: {{#invoke:WikidatIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}} | <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidatIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> | }}
-- with a form that uses just a single call to Wikidata:
-- {{#invoke |WikidataIB |emptyor |1= <span class="xxx">{{#invoke:WikidataIB |getvalue |P99 |fwd=ALL}}</span> }}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.emptyor = function(frame)
	local s = frame.args[1] or ""
	if s == "" then return nil end
	local sx = s:gsub("%s", ""):gsub("<[^>]*>", ""):gsub("%p", "")
	if sx == "" then
		return nil
	else
		return s
	end
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- labelorid is a public function to expose the output of labelOrId()
-- Pass the Q-number as |qid= or as an unnamed parameter.
-- It returns the Wikidata label for that entity or the qid if no label exists.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: labelOrId
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.labelorid = function(frame)
	local label = labelOrId( frame.args.qid or frame.args[1] )
	return label
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getLang returns the MediaWiki language code of the current content.
-- If optional parameter |style=full, it returns the language name.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getLang = function(frame)
	local style = (frame.args.style or ""):lower()
	local langcode = mw.language.getContentLanguage().code
	if style == "full" then
		return mw.language.fetchLanguageName( langcode )
	end
	return langcode
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- findLanguage exports the local findLang() function
-- It takes an optional language code and returns, in order of preference:
-- the code if a known language;
-- the user's language, if set;
-- the server's content language.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.findLanguage = function(frame)
	return findLang(frame.args.lang or frame.args[1]).code
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getQid returns the qid, if supplied
-- failing that, the Wikidata entity ID of the "category's main topic (P301)", if it exists
-- failing that, the Wikidata entity ID asociated with the curent page, if it exists
-- otherwise, nothing
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getQid = function(frame)
	local qid = (frame.args.qid or ""):upper()
	-- check if a qid was passed; if so, return it:
	if qid ~= "" then return qid end
	-- check if there's a "category's main topic (P301)":
	qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
	if qid then
		local prop301 = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P301")
		if prop301[1] then
			local mctid = prop301[1].mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
			if mctid then return mctid end
		end
	end
	-- otherwise return the page qid (if any)
	return qid
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- followQid takes two optional parameters: qid and props
-- If qid is not given, it uses the qid for the connected page
-- or returns nil if there isn't one.
-- props is a list of properties, separated by punctuation.
-- If props is given, the Wikidata item for the qid is examined for each property in turn.
-- If that property contains a value that is another Wikibase-item, that item's qid is returned,
-- and the search terminates.
-- If props is not given, the qid is returned.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.followQid = function(frame)
	local qid = (frame.args.qid or ""):upper()
	if qid == "" then
		qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage()
	end
	if not qid then return nil end

	local props = (frame.args.props or ""):upper()
	if props ~= "" then
		for p in mw.text.gsplit(props, "%p") do -- split at punctuation and iterate
			p = mw.text.trim(p)
			for i, v in ipairs( mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, p) ) do
				local linkedid = v.mainsnak.datavalue and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id
				if linkedid then
					return linkedid
				end
			end -- loop through values of property to follow
		end -- loop through list of properties to follow
	end

	return qid
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- siteID returns the root of the globalSiteID
-- e.g. "en" for "enwiki", "enwikisource", etc.
-- treats "en-gb" as "en", etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.siteID = function(frame)
	local txtlang = frame:preprocess( "{{int:lang}}" ) or ""
	-- This deals with specific exceptions: be-tarask -> be-x-old
	if txtlang == "be-tarask" then
		return "be_x_old"
	end
	local pos = txtlang:find("-")
	local ret = ""
	if pos then
		ret = txtlang:sub(1, pos-1)
	else
		ret = txtlang
	end
	return ret
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- projID returns the code used to link to the reader's language's project
-- e.g "en" for [[:en:WikidataIB]]
-- treats "en-gb" as "en", etc.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.projID = function(frame)
	local txtlang = frame:preprocess( "{{int:lang}}" ) or ""
	-- This deals with specific exceptions: be-tarask -> be-x-old
	if txtlang == "be-tarask" then
		return "be-x-old"
	end
	local pos = txtlang:find("-")
	local ret = ""
	if pos then
		ret = txtlang:sub(1, pos-1)
	else
		ret = txtlang
	end
	return ret
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- formatNumber formats a number according to the the supplied language code ("|lang=")
-- or the default language if not supplied.
-- The number is the first unnamed parameter or "|num="
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang()
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.formatNumber = function(frame)
	local lang
	local num = tonumber(frame.args[1] or frame.args.num) or 0
	lang = findLang(frame.args.lang)
	return lang:formatNum( num )
end

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- examine dumps the property (the unnamed parameter or pid)
-- from the item given by the parameter 'qid' (or the other unnamed parameter)
-- or from the item corresponding to the current page if qid is not supplied.
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |pid=P26 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |P26 |Q42}} or any combination of these
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |examine |P26}} for the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.examine = function( frame )
	local args
	if frame.args[1] or frame.args.pid or frame.args.qid then
		args = frame.args
	else
		args = frame:getParent().args
	end
	local par = {}
	local pid = (args.pid or ""):upper()
	local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
	par[1] = mw.text.trim( args[1] or "" ):upper()
	par[2] = mw.text.trim( args[2] or "" ):upper()
	table.sort(par)
	if par[2]:sub(1,1) == "P" then par[1], par[2] = par[2], par[1] end
	if pid == "" then pid = par[1] end
	if qid == "" then qid = par[2] end
	if pid:sub(1,1) ~= "P" then return "No property supplied" end
	if qid:sub(1,1) ~= "Q" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
	if not qid then return "No item for this page" end
	return mw.dumpObject( mw.wikibase.getAllStatements( qid, pid ) )
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- checkvalue looks for 'val' as a wikibase-item value of a property (the unnamed parameter or pid)
-- from the item given by the parameter 'qid'
-- or from the Wikidata item associated with the current page if qid is not supplied.
-- If property is not supplied, then P31 (instance of) is assumed.
-- It returns val if found or nothing if not found.
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |pid=P31 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |P31 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |qid=Q42}}
-- or {{#invoke:WikidataIB |checkvalue |val=Q5 |P31}} for the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.checkvalue = function( frame )
	local args
	if frame.args.val then
		args = frame.args
	else
		args = frame:getParent().args
	end
	local val = args.val
	if not val then return nil end
	local pid = mw.text.trim(args.pid or args[1] or "P31"):upper()
	local qid = (args.qid or ""):upper()
	if pid:sub(1,1) ~= "P" then return nil end
	if qid:sub(1,1) ~= "Q" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
	if not qid then return nil end
	local stats = mw.wikibase.getAllStatements( qid, pid )
	if not stats[1] then return nil end
	if stats[1].mainsnak.datatype == "wikibase-item" then
		for k, v in pairs( stats ) do
			if v.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" and v.mainsnak.datavalue.value.id == val then
				return val
			end
		end
	end
	return nil
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- url2 takes a parameter url= that is a proper url and formats it for use in an infobox.
-- If no parameter is supplied, it returns nothing.
-- This is the equivalent of Template:URL
-- but it keeps the "edit at Wikidata" pen icon out of the microformat.
-- Usually it will take its url parameter directly from a Wikidata call:
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |url2 |url={{wdib |P856 |qid=Q23317 |fwd=ALL |osd=no}}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.url2 = function(frame)
	local txt = frame.args.url or ""
	if txt == "" then return nil end
	local url, icon = txt:match("(.+)&nbsp;(.+)")
	url = url or txt
	icon = icon or ""
	local prot, addr = url:match("(http[s]*://)(.+)")
	prot = prot or url
	addr = addr or ""
	local disp, n = addr:gsub("%.", "<wbr/>%.")
	return '<span class="url">[' .. prot .. addr .. " " .. disp .. "]</span>&nbsp;" .. icon
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getWebsite fetches the Official website (P856) and formats it for use in an infobox.
-- This is similar to Template:Official website but with a url displayed,
-- and it adds the "edit at Wikidata" pen icon beyond the microformat if enabled.
-- A local value will override the Wikidata value. "NONE" returns nothing.
-- e.g. {{#invoke:WikidataIB |getWebsite |qid= |noicon= |lang= |url= }}
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: findLang(); parseParam();
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getWebsite = function(frame)
	local url = frame.args.url or ""
	if url:upper() == "NONE" then return nil end

	local qid = frame.args.qid or ""
	if qid == "" then qid = mw.wikibase.getEntityIdForCurrentPage() end
	if not qid then return nil end

	local urls = {}
	local quals = {}
	if url == "" then
		local props = mw.wikibase.getBestStatements(qid, "P856")
		for k, v in pairs(props) do
			if v.mainsnak.snaktype == "value" then
				urls[#urls+1] = v.mainsnak.datavalue.value
				if v.qualifiers and v.qualifiers["P1065"] then
					 -- just take the first archive url (P1065)
					local au = v.qualifiers["P1065"][1]
					if au.snaktype == "value" then
						quals[#urls] = au.datavalue.value
					end -- test for archive url having a value
				end -- test for qualifers
			end -- test for website having a value
		end -- loop through website(s)
	else
		urls[1] = url
	end
	if #urls == 0 then return nil end

	local out = {}
	for i, u in ipairs(urls) do
		local link = quals[i] or u
		local prot, addr = u:match("(http[s]*://)(.+)")
		addr = addr or u
		local disp, n = addr:gsub("%.", "<wbr/>%.")
		out[#out+1] = '<span class="url">[' .. link .. " " .. disp .. "]</span>"
	end

	local langcode = findLang(frame.args.lang).code
	local noicon = parseParam(frame.args.noicon, false)
	if url == "" and not noicon then
		out[#out] = out[#out] .. createicon(langcode, qid, "P856")
	end

	local ret = ""
	if #out > 1 then
		ret = mw.getCurrentFrame():expandTemplate{title = "ubl", args = out}
	else
		ret = out[1]
	end

	return ret
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAllLabels fetches the set of labels and formats it for display as wikitext.
-- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAllLabels = function(frame)
	local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}

	local qid = args.qid
	if qid == "" then qid = nil end

	local entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid)
	if not entity then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end

	local labels = entity.labels
	if not labels then return i18n["labels-not-found"] end

	out = {}
	for k, v in pairs(labels) do
		out[#out+1] = v.value .. " (" .. v.language .. ")"
	end

	return table.concat(out, "; ")
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAllDescriptions fetches the set of descriptions and formats it for display as wikitext.
-- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAllDescriptions = function(frame)
	local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}

	local qid = args.qid
	if qid == "" then qid = nil end

	local entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid)
	if not entity then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end

	local descriptions = entity.descriptions
	if not descriptions then return i18n["descriptions-not-found"] end

	out = {}
	for k, v in pairs(descriptions) do
		out[#out+1] = v.value .. " (" .. v.language .. ")"
	end

	return table.concat(out, "; ")
end


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getAllAliases fetches the set of descriptions and formats it for display as wikitext.
-- It takes a parameter 'qid' for arbitrary access, otherwise it uses the current page.
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- Dependencies: none
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
p.getAllAliases = function(frame)
	local args = frame.args or frame:getParent().args or {}

	local qid = args.qid
	if qid == "" then qid = nil end

	local entity = mw.wikibase.getEntity(qid)
	if not entity then return i18n["entity-not-found"] end

	local aliases = entity.aliases
	if not aliases then return i18n["aliases-not-found"] end

	out = {}
	for k1, v1 in pairs(aliases) do
		local lang = v1[1].language
		local val = {}
		for k1, v2 in ipairs(v1) do
			val[#val+1] = v2.value
		end
		out[#out+1] = table.concat(val, ", ") .. " (" .. lang .. ")"
	end

	return table.concat(out, "; ")
end


return p


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- List of exported functions
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
-- getValue
-- getPreferredValue
-- getCoords
-- getQualifierValue
-- getValueByQual
-- getValueByLang
-- getLink
-- getLabel
-- getAT
-- getDescription
-- pageId
-- formatDate
-- location
-- checkBlacklist
-- emptyor
-- labelorid
-- getLang
-- findLanguage
-- getQID
-- followQid
-- siteID
-- projID
-- formatNumber
-- examine
-- checkvalue
-- url2
-- getWebsite
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------